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IoT Write For Us – Knowing the components of the IoT can help us understand what it consists of. The IoT has four main features:

  • Sensors and actuators: These mechanisms perceive information from the environment and interact with it. Sensors collect data, while actuators allow the system to perform specific actions. In the example of the coffee maker, a sensor detects when the user wakes up, and an actuator begins to prepare the coffee.
  • Connectivity: The sensors and actuators connect to what we call a gateway. The gateway communicates with nearby devices and actuators, translating the messages into a standard format uploaded to a cloud service, the Internet. The transmission between the gateway, sensors, and actuators is usually wireless, although it is possible to connect them by cable. Cloud services are generally meticulous about privacy. You can find more information in our courses on the digital revolution and cybersecurity.
  • Cloud: The computing “cloud”—a network of computers connected to the Internet—is responsible for storing and analyzing data to make intelligent decisions. Everything from straightforward rules to complex artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms can be applied by analyzing them. You can find more information in the course on the elements of AI.
  • Human-machine interaction (HMI ) – Users view data and analytics through purpose-built user interfaces or on smartphones and tablets with dedicated apps. In IoT systems, the HMI informs the user and allows them to change automated decisions when necessary.

Sensors, actuators and user interfaces

Many sensors and actuators can be integrated into devices, making IoT systems highly flexible. The designs can be adapted to different needs by combining various sensors and actuators. In this section, we will take a faster look at the sensors, actuators, and user interfaces that make up the IoT.

There are two types of sensors: those for general use and those that perform specific tasks.

  • General-purpose sensors use standard devices, such as cameras and microphones, to collect data. In this case, the data (for example, images or sound recordings) is analyzed using computer applications and algorithms.
  • Sensors for specific tasks are designed to measure certain values ​​and are particularly cheap, robust or energy efficient. Sensors for specific tasks often require more straightforward software solutions than general-purpose sensors. These sensors include thermometers, humidity meters, motion detectors, heart rate and EKG monitors, and scale sensors.

Knowing that these two types of sensors exist, motion detection, for example, could be done in several ways:

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  • A camera can be used to recognize a particular person or to detect movement over a larger area.
  • A dedicated motion sensor can be used, which could be more cost-effective or energy efficient.
  • A microphone could be used in hot and dark places where the last two types of sensors would not work.

In addition to sensors, you can usually interact with the machines part of the IoT system or with the people who control or use it. Therefore, actuators and user interfaces (UI, user interface ) can also be part of these systems. The actuators can modify the values ​​measured by the sensors: for example, increase the temperature or open the windows.

User interfaces are for human-machine interaction and can be visual, audio, voice, or haptic.

  • Visual interfaces are used primarily with smart touch screen plans (smartphones and tablets) or sometimes with a specific device with a touch screen or a conventional screen and multiple buttons.
  • With voice interfaces, users interact with the IoT system by speaking in a natural language. If the user interface is audio-only, you can use sounds to inform essential events.
  • Haptic interfaces often use vibrations to convey information to the user.

Combining all of these types of user interfaces can improve the overall user experience.

IoT and 5G

5G is the fifth version of the mobile network, the most recent. This network’s first generation (1G) only allowed voice transmission. With 2G came digital networks, which are technically a much more advanced solution than the first-generation analogue systems. 3G introduced data transfers, while 4G meaningfully increased transmission speeds. 5G offers much earlier data transmission than any previous mobile network, including 4G. In addition, it can manage regions with a higher connectivity density and provides better coverage.

A key element of 5G is MIMO ( Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output, that, many inputs and many outputs). This technology consists of a large number of antennas and complex communiqué software that allows rapid communication with a large number of devices. Since the IoT depends on the transfer and reception of data, having high-speed mobile Internet connections is a significant factor affecting the functions and range of these smart devices. 5G, as it becomes more widespread, now seen as revolutionizing the IoT.

IoT and AI

The combination of IoT with AI often mentioned as AIoT (artificial intelligence/Internet of Things). According to various sources, the advantages of the IoT can be exploited much better with AI. To understand AIoT, it important to understand the basics of AI. We have already learned that all sensors and actuators collect data that is stowed in the cloud. Such data may subjected to expert analysis or computer programs designed based on expert experience and suggestions. If the data is complex, the rules determined by the experts will not be able to work perfectly.

It is also common that these rules do not work for all cases. So they have to rewritten over and over again as, for example, new sensors additional to the system or the setting changes (such as if a new family moves into an IoT smart home). Thanks to AI, if you have a large amount of representative data, you can extract rules from the data itself. Thus, the AI ​​is also capable of automatically adapting to changes.

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In the IoT, the integrator and decision maker always the human being, so it a personalized process tailored to the user. With AI, devices use data to learn and make decisions based on past user behavior. The more data there is, the better the AI ​​decisions. For example, for the AI ​​to identify the sex of people, you have to feed it photos of women and men. As it receives more photos, the AI ​​can autonomously decide, with increasing precision, whether there is a woman or a man in each image.

With AIoT, the huge amount of data collected by sensors combined with AI methods so that the system can learn from the behavior of users and the environment and thus offer better services. Most AIoT systems work in the cloud or around the gateway, but there is also a more innovative method where AI takes place on edge devices. This last method called TinyML. With it, IoT devices can keep their data in their local environment, they don’t need internet connectivity and the system can respond much faster. On the other hand, TinyML procedures face several limitations, such as low power consumption (a device can work for a whole year with only a small battery, type CR2032) and limited processing power.

For a detailed explanation of the mechanism and possibilities of AI, you can refer to the course’ Elements of AI.

The IoT in our daily life

There already all kinds of sensors around us: some of them connected to a network, and others to a local machine. Smartwatches measure heart rate, daily activities, and hours of sleep and upload that data to the Internet. The actual location of buses and trams collected from GPS data and displayed on a map, indicating at stops when they will arrive. Smart cars carry sensors that collect data on the status of their components and inform the owner or the workshop. And as the IoT spreads, there will  more and more sensors that offer these functions. We will see it in extra detail in the next section, so that you better understand in which situations they can applied and which sectors affected by this phenomenon.

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