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Processor is an integrated circuitry in a computer. It helps interpret the computer commands. It is an electrical component that will perform various operations on external data sources such as memory. Another processor type is the microprocessor, which can be executed on an integrated circuit chip.

A processor is also called the CPU (Central processing unit), an essential computer component that performs most of the computer’s processing. It is considered the computer’s brain that will execute the instructions from the computer program.

What are the Components of a Processor?

The processor has 4 main components. But us briefly understand them:

Arithmetic Logic Unit

It is a central component in the processor that will perform different logic operations. This is an integrated circuit within the CPU, and because of this, it is also called an integer unit. It is also said that it is the last component in the processor that can perform calculations.

Floating Point Unit

It is a computer system component that helps operate floating point numbers. These operations consist of addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. It will also perform transcendental functions such as exponential functions and trigonometry. It would help if you remembered that these calculations are not always accurate.


A computer memory component accepts, stores, and transfers data. It also instructs on using it. It will also instruct the arithmetic logic unit about the processes that should be carried out.


It is one of the smallest but still the fastest memory located close to the processor core. This will help store the copy of data from the constantly used central locations.


A processor will respond to basic instructions from the computer’s drive. It is also considered an integrated electronics circuit that performs calculations on a computer. These circuits are also found in other electronic devices. They will first receive the input as program instructions and then execute calculations to provide the output that will interact with the user.

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