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Router Write For Us Router Guest Blog SubmissionRouter Write For Us – Network-to-network connections allow the Internet to work. The “net layer” is the part of the Internet communications process where these connections are established by sending data packets back and forth between different networks. In the 7-layer OSI model (see below), the network layer is layer 3. Internet Protocol (IP) one of the main protocols used at this layer, along with others for routing, testing, and encryption.

Suppose Bob and Alice connected to the same local area network (LAN), and Bob wants to send a message to Alice. Since Bob is on the same network as Alice, he could send it directly to his computer over the web. However, if Alice is on a different LAN several miles away, Bob’s message will have to be routed and sent to Alice’s network before she can get to her computer, which is a network process. the network layer.

What is a network?

A network is a group of two or more connected computing devices. Typically, all network devices connected to a central hub, for example, a router. A network can also include subnets or smaller subdivisions of the network. Subnets are now more extensive networks, such as Internet Service Providers, can manage thousands of IP addresses and connected devices.

Think of the Internet as a network of networks. Computers  connected within networks, and networks connect to other networks. This process allows these computers to communicate with other computers both near and far.

What happens at the network layer?

Everything that has to do with network connections takes place in the network layer. This includes configuring the routes that data packets must transit, checking that a server is working on another network, and addressing and receiving IP packets from other networks. This last process perhaps the most important since most Internet traffic sent over IP.

What is a package?

All data sent over the Internet divided into smaller pieces called “packets.” A packet has two parts: the header, which contains information about the packet itself, and the body, which is the sent data. When Bob sends a message to Alice, his message  fragmented and then reassembled on Alice’s computer.

At the network layer, network software attaches a header to each packet sent over the Internet; at the other end, network software can use the title to understand how to process the package.

A header contains information about each packet’s content, origin, and destination (like sealing an envelope with a return and destination address). For example, an IP header contains each packet’s destination IP address, the ‘box total size, an indication of whether the box has fragmented (into even smaller pieces) in transit, and a count of how many networks the packet has traversed. Package.

What is the OSI model?

The Open Schemes Interconnection (OSI) model describes how the Internet works. It breaks down the functions involved in sending data over the Internet into seven layers. Each layer has some part that prepares the data to  sent over wires and radio waves as bits.

The seven coatings of the OSI model are:

  • Application layer: data generated and used by software applications. The primary protocol used in this layer is HTTP.
  • Presentation Layer: The data is translated into a form the application can accept. Some authorities consider HTTPS encryption and decryption to take place at this layer.
  • Session Layer –controls the connections between computers (this can also be processed at layer four via the TCP protocol ).
  • Transport layer: provides the means of data transmission between the two connected parties and the quality of service control. The main protocols used here are TCP and UDP.
  • Network Layer: Manages the routing and forwarding of data between different networks. The most important protocols in this layer are IP and ICMP.
  • Data Link Layer: Manages communications between devices on the same network. Ethernet is the most used protocol here. If layer 3 is like the address of correspondence, layer 2 indicates the number of an office or apartment at that address.
  • Physical Layer: Packets are converted into electrical, radio, or optical impulses and transmitted as bits (the most minor possible units of information) over wires or radio waves.
  • Router Write For Us Router Guest Blog Submission

It is important to note that the OSI model is an abstract conceptualization of the processes that enable the Internet to function, and the interpretation and application of the model to the real world of the Internet is sometimes a subjective exercise.

The OSI model is helpful in helping people talk about network equipment and protocols, determine which protocols each piece of software and hardware uses, and show a broad outline of how the Internet works. But it’s not a rigid, step-by-step definition of how Internet connections always work.

OSI model vs. TCP/IP model

The TCP/IP model is an alternative model of how the Internet works. Divide the processes involved into four layers instead of seven. Some argue that the TCP/IP model more accurately reflects how the Internet works today. However, the OSI model is still generally referred to in understanding the Internet, and both models have their strengths and weaknesses.

The four coats of the TCP/IP model are:

  • Application layer: corresponds approximately to layer 7 of the OSI model.
  • Transport Layer: Matches layer 4 of the OSI model.
  • Internet layer: corresponds to layer 3 of the OSI model.
  • Network access layer: combines the processes of layers 1 and 2 of the OSI model.

But where are OSI layers 5 and 6 in the TCP/IP model? Some sources argue that OSI layer 5 and 6 processes no longer needed in the modern network or that they belong to layers 7 and 4 (represented by layers 4 and 3 in the TCP/IP model).

For example, since the TCP protocol opens and maintains sessions at layer 4 of the OSI model, OSI layer 5 (the “session” layer) could considered unnecessary and not represented in the TCP/IP model. . Also, HTTPS encryption and decryption can viewed as an application layer process (OSI layer seven or TCP/IP layer 4) rather than a presentation layer process (OSI layer 6).

What is the difference between the “network” and the “internet” layers?

The network layer of the OSI model is roughly the same as the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model. In the OSI model, the network layer is layer 3, while in the TCP/IP model, the Internet layer is layer 2. In the TCP/IP model, there is no “network” layer.

Put another way, the network layer and the Internet layer are the same things, but they come from different models of how the Internet works.

What protocols are used at the network layer?

A protocol is an agreed way of formatting data so that two or more devices can communicate and understand each other. Several different protocols enable connections, testing, routing, and encryption at the network layer, including:

  • IP
  • IPsec
  • ICMP
  • IGMP network protocol
  • GRE

How does Cloudflare protect the network layer?

The network layer infrastructure, being exposed to the rest of the Internet, vulnerable to external attacks, mainly Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Routers, switches, and other network interfaces can become overwhelmed or compromised by malicious network traffic, and almost any of the network above protocols can used in an attack.

Cloudflare Magic Transit protects network infrastructure using the same technology that keeps millions of web properties up and running against vulnerability exploits and DDoS attacks. Extends Cloudflare protection to on-premises networks and data centres, keeping organizations safe from network layer attacks.

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